Dr. Carlin emphasizes a need to focus on the immediate and very short term goals as a way to break out of negotiating deadlock. To that end, the steps that stakeholders will have to take must be examined more seriously. One possible way forward would involve a freeze on the production of fissile materials since the DPRK already has enough for at least forty weapons. While difficult, this would allow the U.S. to continue negotiations with the DPRK.
As far as sanctions relief goes, Carlin argues that little can be accomplished regarding American sanctions, but a concerted effort at suspending UN sanctions is possible. This would give the DPRK an opportunity to consider the efforts being made by the U.S. to accommodate North Korea, while not being requierd to completely buy into the proposals made.
Moving forward with the process of denuclearization would help the DPRK with its current sanctions because it would propel the Security Council to review its resolutions as measures toward purposeful change. This would be a clear sign of good faith for both the DPRK and the UN, as it would allow suspended sanctions to be resumed should anything run afoul. By thinking carefully about what the sanctions are used for, those sanctions that are symbolic but do not directly affect the nuclear program could be brokered and negotiated.